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What’s Wrong With Canadian Universities
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Can I get a copy? Can I view this online? Ask a librarian. Dennison and Others. Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other First Nations people are advised that this catalogue contains names, recordings and images of deceased people and other content that may be culturally sensitive. Book , Online - Google Books. Like the articulated model it may not be seen as consistent with the intent of the move to baccalaureate entry-to-practice. This model may be preferred if other program models are not seen to be feasible or college and university sites are located far away from each other so as to make travel between the two sites difficult.
Like the articulated model, this model is useful if there is an interest in delivering post-secondary programs at sites in remote or rural locations that are more easily accessible to populations. An added advantage of this model is that it allows students to undertake their entire program in one geographic location which accommodates student access to the program and enhances the potential for the program to produce graduates in multiple communities. The sandwich model involves student access to two or more educational institutions for completion of the four-year degree program.
This model was used to deliver the first university-level nursing program in Canada, which was introduced at the University of British Columbia in Sandwich models that combined hospital-based technical training with university programs were often criticized for an insufficient level of emphasis on liberal education and high levels of student attrition after the initial year of university experience Richardson, While the sandwich model does not appear to have been used to date in the delivery of college-university collaborative programs, the model appears to be a feasible option for joint programs.
The content for the middle portion of the program could be jointly developed by the college and university partners in keeping with curriculum standards of degree-granting and the requirements of professional regulation. One advantage of this model is that it offers an opportunity for universities to free up resources that can be redirected toward specialized or graduate-level programming McGraw, The incorporation of flexible decentralized distributed delivery methods may a help to ensure program accessibility to remote and rural constituencies and b minimize the disruption, academic and otherwise, sometimes encountered by transfer students.
This model is also a potential option in instances where the university partner does not already house a school of nursing Gerhard et al. In the articulated-parallel model, students can complete the first two program years at a college partner site and transfer to the university site following the second year.
However, in addition to the articulated program component, the university also enrols students in the first two program years. Years three and four of the program includes students who completed two years at the college site and students who completed two years at the university site.
In addition to the academic challenges students in college-university transfer programs sometimes experience, the articulated-parallel hybrid model has the potential to create a real or perceived academic hierarchy between students who began their programs at the university site and students who began their programs at the college site. As the name suggests, in partially-integrated models some years, semesters or classes of the program are integrated.
While, for the most part, these programs operate like the parallel or articulated models, some program components are jointly delivered and there is a crossover of students and faculty between sites. For example, the first two years of a program may be offered in their entirety by the college partner but in the remaining two years university faculty provide classroom instruction at the college site. If distance education is an option, this delivery structure is likely to be attractive when there are larger distances between partner campuses.
In addition to facilitating greater student access, partially-integrated models have an increased potential to supply nurses to multiple communities. Like the integrated model, this model may pose challenges with respect to human resources and logistics. Fifteen years ago, Skolnik and Jones made the following observation about the state of college-university collaboration in Canadian post-secondary education:.
While there have been modest advances in inter-sector coordination since the s, these changes have not profoundly changed the post-secondary education landscape. Quite a bit of variability in credit transfer and articulation still exists across the provinces, and despite commitments from the Council of Ministers of Education, the potential for the future development of a national, standard credit transfer system appears to be far off Canadian Council on Learning, ; Council of Ministers of Education, Canada, , As this article makes clear, nursing education programs in Canada have been at the forefront of developments in college-university collaboration over the past 10 years.
In many instances, the characteristics of the collaboration models that have emerged share much in common with the transfer models that preceded them. It is important to recognize that the wide-spread adoption of collaborative baccalaureate nursing programs has largely been driven by the nursing profession itself in response to the challenges of an increasingly complex health care milieu.
Many of the collaborations in nursing education have remained stable since their inception, however, in other cases collaborative partnerships have, for various reasons, been modified or dissolved since their original implementation. Each of the transfer and collaboration models described has particular advantages, and while it may be true that collaborative programs are more effective in utilizing the expertise in each of the sectors, it should be recognized that institutional cooperation of any sort, regardless of the model, requires significant effort.
Because colleges and universities have different mandates, different governance structures, different academic and institutional cultures and different historical traditions, various issues and challenges arise in the development of collaborative degree programs. As in any relationship, there is a possibility that one party or the other will feel that it is putting more in than it is getting from the partnership. In a fiscal environment where public funding is becoming more and more constrained, college-university collaboration is sometimes put forward as a more efficient mechanism for utilizing scarce funding.
However, there is evidence to suggest that inter-sectoral collaboration comes with some added cost, at least in the initial stages. While it may result in less system-wide cost in the long run, it is perilous to assume that it does not require some specific, additional up-front investment. Because degree granting has traditionally been the domain of universities in Canada, articulation between the college and university sectors has been advantageous for college graduates seeking to complete degrees.
Research on Colleges
With the introduction of independent community college degree-granting in several provinces, the necessity, and public pressure, for colleges to partner with universities is lessened to a significant extent. In fact, the future direction of program articulation in Canadian post-secondary education could very well depend on the success of the new community college baccalaureate degrees. College Quarterly Fall - Volume 11 Number 4. Home Contents. Advancing Articulation: Models of College-University Collaboration in Canadian Higher Education 1 by Dale Kirby Abstract This paper reports on the results of an analysis of program articulation between the college and university sectors in Canada.
Advancing Articulation: Models of College-University Collaboration in Canadian Higher Education This paper provides an overview and analysis of the predominant models of college-university articulation in practice at Canadian post-secondary education institutions.
Transfer and Collaboration in Canadian Higher Education Since post-secondary education is a provincial responsibility in Canada, it should not come as a surprise that the level of coordination and cooperation between the university and non-university sectors varies from one jurisdiction to another. In recent years, the community college systems in many provinces have taken on a greater transfer role through the negotiation of various transfer arrangements with degree-granting institutions across Canada and the United States Skolnik, ; Collaborative Nursing Programs The first inter-institutional collaborative programs to emerge in Canada were baccalaureate-level nursing programs that were developed and implemented in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia in the late s Wood, College-University Transfer Models Under the traditional credit transfer model, students can receive program credit when transferring from one post-secondary institution to another regardless of the types of institutions involved i.
Course-by-Course Transfer Model Under the course-by-course transfer model, individual courses completed by students at a community college are recognized as equivalent to individual courses at a university. Multiple Course Transfer Model The multiple course transfer model is advantageous when course-by-course credit transfer is not possible because, for example, the course content at the community college level does not include the same competencies included in courses at the university level.
Block Transfer Model Inter-sectoral transfer arrangements that follow the block transfer model recognize a certificate program, diploma program or some block of courses completed at a community college and, depending on the articulation agreement, allow students to transfer directly into the second or third year of a university baccalaureate degree program. Program Bridging Model Like the block transfer model, the program bridging model allows students to receive advanced standing in a baccalaureate degree program at the receiving university in recognition of a certificate program, diploma program or some block of courses previously completed at the community college-level.
College-University Collaboration Like credit transfer program models, collaborative college-university programs are jointly planned and offered by community college and university partners and involve formalized inter-institutional articulation agreements. College-University Collaboration in Canadian Nursing Education As noted earlier, the college-university inter-sectoral collaboration model has been widely adopted in recent years for the delivery of baccalaureate nursing education.
College-University Collaborative Program Models While by definition, college and university collaborative partners share responsibility for the delivery of a common curriculum, the extent and type of collaboration that may exist between a university and its collaborating partner or partners can vary substantially. Integrated Model In programs that follow an integrated program model, both the college and university partners are involved in each year of the program from the beginning, with different instructional activities provided by each institution.
Parallel Model For programs that follow the parallel model, cohorts of students separately begin their programs at the college or university site. Sandwich Model The sandwich model involves student access to two or more educational institutions for completion of the four-year degree program. Hybrid Model: Articulated-Parallel Model In the articulated-parallel model, students can complete the first two program years at a college partner site and transfer to the university site following the second year. Hybrid Model: Partially-Integrated Model As the name suggests, in partially-integrated models some years, semesters or classes of the program are integrated.
Future Directions for Articulation and Collaboration Fifteen years ago, Skolnik and Jones made the following observation about the state of college-university collaboration in Canadian post-secondary education: inter-sector coordination is perceived as an important issue; coordination structures are most developed in the provinces in which there is the strongest mandate for articulation between sectors; and efforts are under way in most provinces to refine and improve structures for inter-sector coordination.
References Algonquin College. Experiences of transfer students in a collaborative baccalaureate nursing program. Community College Review, 33 2 , Canadian Council on Learning. Post-secondary education in Canada: Strategies for success. Entry to the practice of nursing: A background paper. Ottawa, ON: Author.
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Council of Ministers of Education, Canada. Ministerial Statement on credit transfer in Canada. Provincial post-secondary systems and arrangements for credit transfer. Toronto, ON: Author. Canada's community colleges: A critical analysis. Diaz, P. Effects of transfer on academic performance of community college students at the four-year institution. Dick, D. Undergraduate education: Development and politics. McIntyre, E.
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Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. Gallagher, P. Canada's community college systems: A study of diversity.
Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 19 5 , Gallop, R. Articulation and baccalaureate entry to practice. Nursing Papers, 16 4 , Gerhard, W. Report of the Joint Nursing Articulation Project.
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Unpublished manuscript. Kirby, D. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 37 2 , McGraw, M. Unpublished paper. Memorial University of Newfoundland.
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Nursing shortage more severe, urgent than expected. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 7 , p. Skolnik, M. Evolution of relations between community colleges and universities in Ontario.