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Fluorescent profiles of Bacteria which are responsible for otitis Media in children: S. These studies proved that each bacterium produce a different specific Fluorescence profile.

When can we use it?

The data indicate that it may be an excellent non invasive fluorescence based diagnostic technique for otitis media [ 12 ]. Fluorescence spectroscopy was utilized for pseudomonad taxonomic purpose at species and genus level [ 14 ]. Results proved that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be an excellent tool in polyphasic approach to pseudomonad taxonomy. This approach provide more information as compared to rRNA and DNA bacterial homology grouping as they provide more information about strain relatedness and good differentiation between strains which are difficult to differentiate on PCR and API 20NE identification methods [ 14 ].

Fungal infections are common in many diseases like diabetes, many types of cancers, endocrinopathies, and patients on prolonged antibiotics or immunosuppressive drugs. Diagnosis of fungal infection is made either by morphological examination of fungi or by biochemical and molecular biology techniques [ 15 ].

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These techniques may not differentiate between different types of yeast. There are studies which have utilized spectroscopic fingerprints method for rapid diagnosis of different fungi such as yeast, Microsporum gypseum , Microsporum canis , Trichophyton schoenleinii , Trichophyton rubrum , Epidermophyton floccosum and Fusarium solani [ 9 , 16 ]. Studies indicate that Fluorescence spectroscopy may be a novel diagnostic tool to detect viruses.

Also viral infections of cells can be monitored by Fluorescence spectroscopy [ 3 ]. These studies were carried out on viruses from cystovirus family and pseudomonad host cells. Within proteins, tryptophan structural environment is not same and this structural difference is responsible for specific spectroscopic signatures [ 3 ]. This property can be used to monitor viral attachment process and to study the release of progeny virus particles by analysis of tryptophan emission spectra during infection process.

In author's Lab, Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy FCS has been applied successfully to understand human rhino virus-receptor interaction [ 17 ]. These experiments provide informative data for understanding virus-receptor interactions. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy FCS studies revealed different binding modes for an icosahedral virus along the five-fold symmetry axis. We proposed that Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy FCS may be a valuable technique to study various receptor binding affinities of viruses.

Spectroscopic technique may be automatized which can then process many diagnostic samples at the same time. Also, fiber optic systems may be integrated with this spectroscopic technique to diagnose microorganisms in vivo. By this modification, infections in many body parts can be detected with ease. Further research is required to establish flexible and portable spectroscopic devices which can be integrated in daily medical practice. There is need for reference libraries for spectral signatures of individual microorganism.

This will be very helpful for comparison with spectral signatures from an unknown microorganism sample. But, there are many questions which remain to be answered like if biological sample contains more than one microorganism, then how it will affect the spectral signature appearance and how to interpret these spectral for making definite diagnosis.

Also, microorganisms like bacteria have many chemicals which are same like in human cells and in extracellular space, thus body fluids samples may contain same chemicals as found in microorganisms. As a result, it may interfere with spectroscopic spectral analysis and may be a hurdle to reach on definite diagnosis. This justifies the need for studies which can enable to make distinction between microorganism and human cells. Also, future studies should be directed to determine the specific spectral regions which will be suitable for identification of specific microorganisms.

Fluroscence spectroscopy / flurometry /spectroflurometry

It will help to design invasive and non invasive techniques for microorganism's diagnosis inside the body cavities by use of fiber optic devices. At present, nearly all the diagnostic techniques and methods used for microorganism's diagnosis are not perfect and have some limitations.

Light Sources for Fluorescence Spectroscopy

There is great need for a diagnostic technique which can overcome limitations and drawbacks of commonly used microbiological techniques and methods. Studies indicate that Fluorescence spectroscopy have great potential to become an excellent and perfect diagnostic technique for microorganisms. In many research studies, fluorescence emission spectra derived from autofluorescence property of many medically important bacteria make it possible to distinguish between various bacterial species and also enable to classify the bacteria into genus, species and groups.

Recent research studies indicate that virus particles can be monitored inside cells and various processes of viral infections can be detected by means of Fluorescence spectroscopy. Difference between fungal microorganisms like yeast can be made easily by use of spectroscopic fingerprinting. Future clinical trials on large scale should be performed to validate Fluorescence spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for microorganisms.

Flexible and portable spectroscopic devices should be design which can be integrated in routine medical practice.

Overall, emerging research studies and data points that Fluorescence spectroscopy is a potential diagnostic tool for microorganisms. Based on these data and research studies, we expect that in near future, Fluorescence spectroscopy will be available as a routine diagnostic tool for microorganisms in daily medical practice. Ultimately, Patients will benefit from its low cost, fast processing and high sensitivity properties.

In the long term, spectroscopy fingerprinting may become an excellent tool to classify microorganisms into their respective groups, genus and species level. This will be very promising system with high sensitivity and high specificity for microorganisms classification. The World Health Report - changing history.

Photochemistry and Photobiology. Gynecol Oncol. Klinger J, Friedrich T: Site-specific interaction of thrombin and inhibitors observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Biophys J.

Fluorescence spectrometry - Fluorescence spectrometry - Chromedia

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. Leblanc Ludovic, Dufour Eric: Monitoring the identity of bacteria using their intrinsic fluorescence. Sarkissian Ani: Fiber optic fluorescence microprobe for endodontic diagnosis. J Dent Educ. Sorrell Matthew: Bacteria identification of otitis media with fluorescence spectroscopy. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. Journal of Fluorescence. Current Microbiology. Saunders Co.

Fluorescence Spectroscopy

Rativa Diego: Perspectives on in vitro fungal diagnosis with UV light. Download references. The authors also acknowledge "OnkoTec GmbH. Austria, for their kind technical support.

Correspondence to Aamir Shahzad. All authors participated in the preparation of the manuscript, and read and approved the final manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract There are many diagnostic techniques and methods available for diagnosis of medically important microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Fluorescence spectroscopy Fluorescence spectroscopy seems to be promising diagnostic technique with fast and rapid diagnosis ability. Figure 1. Full size image.

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Figure 2. Right, the response of the SI-BF detected using two aperture settings and calculated ratios lower traces. Furthermore, fluorescent data collected with the small aperture setting and low-pass filtered at 50 Hz is shown. Note the large time difference in the detection of the fluorescence signal between the imaging data Rolera EM-C 2 and the SI-BF detection ms vs.

Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the Analysis of Spirit Drinks

Belz M. Fiber optic Biofluorometer for physiological research on muscle slices. Posted: June 27, Categories: Spectroscopy , Did You Know? Tags: spectroscopy. Four essential elements of fluorescence signaling can be then identified to build up a detection system : Excitation light source adapted to the absorption bandwidth of the fluorophore e. Photomultiplier tubes. References Belz M. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Cross-references.

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