The languages of Taiwanese aborigines have significance in historical linguistics , since in all likelihood Taiwan was the place of origin of the entire Austronesian language family, which spread across Oceania. The Malay Singaporeans are the indigenous people of Singapore, inhabiting it since the Austronesian migration. They have established Kingdom of Singapura back in the 13th century.
The Cham in Vietnam are only recognized as a minority, and not as an indigenous people by the Vietnamese government despite being indigenous to the region. In Indonesia, there are 50 to 70 million people who classify as indigenous peoples. In the Philippines , there are ethno-linguistic groups, majority of which are considered as indigenous peoples by mainstream indigenous ethnic groups in the country. The indigenous peoples of Mindanao are the Lumad peoples and the Moro Tausug , Maguindanao Maranao and others who also live in the Sulu archipelago.
There are also others sets of indigenous peoples in Palawan , Mindoro , Visayas , and the rest central and south Luzon. The country has one of the largest indigenous peoples population in the world. In Europe, present-day indigenous populations as recognized by the UN are relatively few, mainly confined to its north and far east. Notable minority indigenous populations in Europe include the Basque people of northern Spain and southern France, the Sami people of northern Scandinavia , the Nenets , Samoyedic and Komi peoples of northern Russia , and the Circassians of southern Russia and the North Caucasus.
In Australia the indigenous populations are the Aboriginal Australians , within which are many different nations and tribes, and the Torres Strait Islanders. These groups are often spoken of as Indigenous Australians. Many of the present-day Pacific Island nations in the Oceania region were originally populated by Polynesian , Melanesian and Micronesian peoples over the course of thousands of years.
European colonial expansion in the Pacific brought many of these under non-indigenous administration. During the 20th century several of these former colonies gained independence and nation-states were formed under local control. However, various peoples have put forward claims for Indigenous recognition where their islands are still under external administration; examples include the Chamorros of Guam and the Northern Marianas , and the Marshallese of the Marshall Islands.
The remains of at least 25 miniature humans, who lived between 1, and 3, years ago, were recently found on the islands of Palau in Micronesia. In most parts of Oceania, indigenous peoples outnumber the descendants of colonists. Exceptions include Australia , New Zealand and Hawaii. According to the census, New Zealand Maori make up The Maori are indigenous to Polynesia and settled New Zealand relatively recently, the migrations were thought to have occurred in the 13th century CE.
In New Zealand pre-contact Maori tribes were not a single people, thus the more recent grouping into tribal iwi arrangements has become a more formal arrangement in more recent times. Many Maori tribal leaders signed a treaty with the British, the Treaty of Waitangi , which formed the modern geo-political entity that is New Zealand.
The independent state of Papua New Guinea PNG has a majority population of indigenous societies, with more than different tribal groups recognized out of a total population of 8 million. However, conflicts and disputes concerning land use and resource rights continue between indigenous groups, the government, and corporate entities. Indigenous peoples confront a diverse range of concerns associated with their status and interaction with other cultural groups, as well as changes in their inhabited environment.
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Some challenges are specific to particular groups; however, other challenges are commonly experienced. The interaction between indigenous and non-indigenous societies throughout history has been complex, ranging from outright conflict and subjugation to some degree of mutual benefit and cultural transfer. A particular aspect of anthropological study involves investigation into the ramifications of what is termed first contact , the study of what occurs when two cultures first encounter one another.
The situation can be further confused when there is a complicated or contested history of migration and population of a given region, which can give rise to disputes about primacy and ownership of the land and resources. Wherever indigenous cultural identity is asserted, common societal issues and concerns arise from the indigenous status.
These concerns are often not unique to indigenous groups. Despite the diversity of Indigenous peoples, it may be noted that they share common problems and issues in dealing with the prevailing, or invading, society. They are generally concerned that the cultures of Indigenous peoples are being lost and that indigenous peoples suffer both discrimination and pressure to assimilate into their surrounding societies. This is borne out by the fact that the lands and cultures of nearly all of the peoples listed at the end of this article are under threat. Notable exceptions are the Sakha and Komi peoples two of the northern indigenous peoples of Russia , who now control their own autonomous republics within the Russian state, and the Canadian Inuit , who form a majority of the territory of Nunavut created in Despite the control of their territories, many Sakha people have lost their lands as a result of the Russian Homestead Act which allows any Russian citizen to own any land in the Far Eastern region of Russia.
This rejection ended up recognizing that there was a pre-existing system of law practiced by the Meriam people. It is also sometimes argued that it is important for the human species as a whole to preserve a wide range of cultural diversity as possible, and that the protection of indigenous cultures is vital to this enterprise.
Both Hindu and Chams have experienced religious and ethnic persecution and restrictions on their faith under the current Vietnamese government, with the Vietnamese state confisticating Cham property and forbidding Cham from observing their religious beliefs. Hindu temples were turned into tourist sites against the wishes of the Cham Hindus.source url
Chapter 10. Global Inequality
In , Vietnamese police in Chau Giang village stormed into a Cham Mosque, stole the electric generator, and also raped Cham girls. The Indonesian government has outright denied the existence of indigenous peoples within the countries' borders. And no elimination of one culture by another. In December , the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People, and requested UN specialized agencies to consider with governments and indigenous people how they can contribute to the success of the Decade of Indigenous People, commencing in December As a consequence, the World Health Organization , at its Forty-seventh World Health Assembly, established a core advisory group of indigenous representatives with special knowledge of the health needs and resources of their communities, thus beginning a long-term commitment to the issue of the health of indigenous peoples.
The WHO notes that " Statistical data on the health status of indigenous peoples is scarce. This is especially notable for indigenous peoples in Africa, Asia and eastern Europe", but snapshots from various countries, where such statistics are available, show that indigenous people are in worse health than the general population, in advanced and developing countries alike: higher incidence of diabetes in some regions of Australia;  higher prevalence of poor sanitation and lack of safe water among Twa households in Rwanda;  a greater prevalence of childbirths without prenatal care among ethnic minorities in Vietnam;  suicide rates among Inuit youth in Canada are eleven times higher than the national average;  infant mortality rates are higher for indigenous peoples everywhere.
Indigenous peoples have frequently been subjected to various forms of racism and discrimination. Indigenous peoples have been denoted primitives , savages  or uncivilized.
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These terms were common during the heights of European colonial expansion, but still continue in certain societies in modern times. During the 17th century, indigenous peoples were commonly labeled "uncivilized". Some philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes considered indigenous people to be merely 'savages', while others are purported to have considered them to be " noble savages ".
Those who were close to the Hobbesian view tended to believe themselves to have a duty to "civilize" and "modernize" the indigenous. Although anthropologists, especially from Europe, used to apply these terms to all tribal cultures, it has fallen into disfavor as demeaning and is, according to many anthropologists, not only inaccurate, but dangerous.
Survival International runs a campaign to stamp out media portrayal of indigenous peoples as 'primitive' or 'savages'. After World War I , however, many Europeans came to doubt the morality of the means used to "civilize" peoples. At the same time, the anti-colonial movement, and advocates of indigenous peoples, argued that words such as " civilized " and "savage" were products and tools of colonialism , and argued that colonialism itself was savagely destructive.
In the mid 20th century, European attitudes began to shift to the view that indigenous and tribal peoples should have the right to decide for themselves what should happen to their ancient cultures and ancestral lands. North America. South America. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ethnic group descended from and identified with the original inhabitants of a given region.
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See also: Columbian exchange. See also: List of indigenous peoples. Main article: Indigenous peoples of Africa.
See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Africa. Main article: Indigenous peoples of the Americas. See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of the Americas. Main article: Indigenous peoples of Asia. See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Asia. This section needs additional citations for verification. Main article: Ethnic groups in Europe. See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Europe. Main article: Indigenous peoples of Oceania. See also: Category:Indigenous peoples of Oceania. International Journal of Cultural Property. Erica-Irene A. Daes, on the concept of indigenous people.
Oxford University Press, September Briefing note. Indigenous peoples in the new Arctic. Evengard, O. Nymand Larsen, O. Paasche Eds , The New Arctic pp. New York: Palgrave MacMillan, n. Google Scholar. Retrieved on International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs. Retrieved 5 September Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Government of Canada. Retrieved 18 September Archived from the original on 5 March Faculty of Law.
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