Ship-handling is about arriving and departing a berth or buoy , maneuvering in confined channels and harbours and in proximity to other ships, whilst at all times navigating safely. Two other types of operations, berthing alongside another ship and replenishment at sea, are occasionally included. A key ability for a ship-handler is a good understanding of how the wind, tide and swell, the passage of other vessels, as well as the shape of the seabed, will affect a vessel's movement, which, together with an understanding of a specific vessel's performance, should allow that vessel a safe passage.
Fundamental to low-speed maneuvering is an understanding of the configuration and handedness of the propeller s. An effect known as propeller walk will kick the stern of the vessel to port or starboard depending on the configuration and the type of propeller when large variations on propeller rotation speed or changes of propeller rotation direction take place. In single-screw vessels where the rotation of the propeller is reversed on an astern bell, a standard was established that the propeller would turn clockwise when viewed from astern. This would mean that the propeller would turn counterclockwise when going astern and the stern would walk to port.
Manual Of Seamanship
This aided in docking operations, where "port side to" was the preferred situation and the vessel would be brought to the dock with a small bow-in angle and backing would flatten the angle, slow or stop the vessel and walk it alongside. An exception to this was the U. Sealift class tankers, which used a controllable-pitch propeller, where the pitch and not the direction of rotation was reversed to go astern. These propellers rotated counterclockwise at all times and so the "walk" was "normal". Other variations include what are known as bucket rudders such as the Kortz Nozzle where instead of a conventional rudder a pair of dish-shaped rudders, one either side of the propeller can be swivelled vertically to direct the propeller thrust through degrees.
Thus to put the vessel into astern mode the rudder can be rotated through degrees without altering the speed and direction of the engine.
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Since with the conventional propeller or rudder configuration the propeller is designed to operate at maximum efficiency when going ahead, it produces far less thrust when going astern. But with the Kortz Nozzle, the ahead and astern thrust is the same. Other advantages of the nozzle are the ship can be steered astern which a conventional rudder cannot, and the ship can be steered fully under control to a standstill switching between ahead and astern mode to give complete control over speed.
In addition to being fully conversant with the principles of seamanship and ship-handling, a good pilot will have developed his or her sense of 'situational awareness' to a point well beyond that of a member of a ship's crew; his reactions will appear to be instinctive, positive and at all times safe. Most commercial vessels in excess of size limits determined by local authorities are handled in confined areas by a marine or maritime pilot.
Marine pilots are seafarers with extensive seafaring experience and are usually qualified master mariners who have been trained as expert ship-handlers. These pilots are conversant with all types of vessel and propulsion systems, as well as handling ships of all sizes in all weather and tidal conditions.
They are also experts in the geographical areas they work. In most countries, the pilot takes over the 'conduct' of the navigation from the ship master. This means that the master and crew should adhere to the pilot's orders in respect of the safe navigation of the vessel when in a compulsory pilotage area. The master may with good cause resume 'conduct' of the vessel's navigation. However this should never be done lightly.
In situations where the pilot is an "advisor" even though he has the con , the pilot or his "Association" have no responsibility or liability in the case of an accident. The master, upon realizing there is a dangerous situation developing, must take such action as to avoid an accident or at least to minimize the damage from one that can't be avoided.
In some countries and areas e. Scandinavia and the U. However, in practice, they are likely to have the conduct of the vessel, especially on larger ships using tug boats to assist.
The general rule of thumb is that a pilot assumes command of a vessel and is not classed as "an advisor" in the Panama Canal, crossing the sill of a drydock , or in any port in Russia or, perhaps, all the old Soviet states. This distinction is important because when a pilot is in command, the master can not take any action, but is limited to advising the pilot on any circumstance that creates what he considers a dangerous situation. In the days before mechanical propulsion, an able seaman was expected to be able to "hand, and reef, and steer".
Training is more formal in modern merchant marines and navies, but still covers the basics. The crew of a large ship will typically be organized into "divisions" or "departments", each with its own specialty.
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For example, the deck division would be responsible for boat handling and general maintenance, while the engineering division would be responsible for propulsion and other mechanical systems. Crew start on the most basic duties and as they gain experience and expertise advance within their area. Crew who have gained proficiency become "able seamen", "petty officers", "rated", or "mates" depending on the organization to which they belong.
Hard Cover. Spine ends and corners bumped and rubbed. Extending sketches to interior. More information about this seller Contact this seller 5. First Edition. Copy in navy cloth on boards with title blind stamped on cover and gilt title on spine. Spine lightly sunned. Boards lightly scuffed. Corners bumped. Adverts as front and rear end papers. Previous owners inscription on front paste down.
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Several light internal cracks. Fold out chart at rear has closed tear along bottom edge. More information about this seller Contact this seller 6. Published by H. About this Item: H. Condition: Poor. Some scuffing and wear to the edges of the jacket. Old and tatty, the content is tanned. Still intact but fragile and best as a reference copy.
More information about this seller Contact this seller 7. Published by His Majesty's Stationery Office A secure and sure book in worn and aged condition. The navy blue cover is sturdy and sound.
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There is wear to the edges and seams and spine. The binding is healthy and robust. Inside, the contents are foxed, clear, diligent, competent, assured and comfortably confident. Seller Inventory aszh. More information about this seller Contact this seller 8. A copy that has been read, but remains in clean condition. All pages are intact, and the cover is intact.
The spine may show signs of wear. Pages can include limited notes and highlighting, and the copy can include previous owner inscriptions. More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. FREE U. Original, not a modern copy. Volume 1.
Spine damage. Seller Inventory E More information about this seller Contact this seller Published by King's Printer, Ottawa. About this Item: King's Printer, Ottawa. Hinges are repaired with black electrical tape. Boards are worn and soiled. Extremities are severely rubbed. Front board is bowed.
Corners are bumped. Gutters at front and back endpapers are cracked. Binding is holding together, though it is loose. Markings from previous owner at front and back pastedowns. Interior is age-toned and soiled, though text and images remain clear. Blue cloth. Contains illustrations and sketches. Moderate tanning, with light foxing and marking to pages. Moderate tanning and marking, with inscriptions to text block edges. Some rub-marking and heavy tanning to pastedowns and endpapers. Boards have moderate shelf wear, with rubbing and marking.
Light bumping to corners and crushing to spine ends. Binding remains firm, with slight warping to front board.
Seller Inventory ANA. From Volume I only. Blue, speckled vinyl feel boards with blind stamped border line and lettering to front board. Gilt lettering and two bands to spine strip. Printed front paste down - advert. Bookseller HM Stationery Office stamp to title page. Includes: adverts; 14 chapters; illustrations; index. Illustrations within the text plus colour plates and fold outs. First chapter is entitled 'Naval Routine'. Text is clean. One fold out is torn.
Binding is quite tight but spine rolls - inner hinges weakened? Board corners bumped. Spine strip colour faded. Published by M About this Item: M, Condition: GOOD. Cover worn, slight spine damage. Illustrated w instructional diagrams.
The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship 12th edition
Fold-out diagram tipped in is creased but without tears. Unpaginated instructional plates tipped in. Front hinge repaired. Serviceman name stamped on ffep. Dark blue cloth w blindstamp lettering on cover, dulled gold lettering on spine. Corners rubbed and bumped, head and tail are worn, light wear to edges, joints are sound and binding rounded.