Draucker and Martsolf indicated that technology has changed the course of relationship quality and communication because boundaries have shifted. Counselors can incorporate healthy technology communication into their treatment plans. Bergdall et al. We did not incorporate a random sampling method, as there were no large student lists or databases for generating random samples.
We were unable to calculate a response rate due to the nature of our convenience sampling approach. Thus, the study results might not be representative of the young adult population at all colleges and universities. Additionally, the majority of the sample was comprised of white, heterosexual females.
This study also is limited because it incorporated self-report measures, with some participants reflecting on past relationships. Self-report, especially when thinking about a relationship that did not work out, may not provide accurate information. Additionally, we did not collect data from both members of a couple.
Finally, there were missing data because participants skipped items, marked two items instead of one or skipped enough items that their results were not interpretable.
We used a data imputation method with reduced bias, but there is no certainty in the accuracy of the imputed responses. Recent research has contributed to the formation of IPV typologies and has challenged traditional models, yet much remains unknown about partner violence among young adults. Given the need for more information about both IPV and the use of technology in relationship communication, this study looked at technology use as a risk factor for IPV among young adults. Our study both confirmed prior results and contributed new results.
Results suggest that emerging adults may expect technology to be an important means of relationship communication. Those counseling college-aged couples should consider discussing healthy avenues for incorporating technology. Furthermore, technology use should be considered when counselors screen couples for risk factors associated with IPV. However, more research is warranted regarding the use of technology in young adult relationships.
Adelman, M. Dating conflicts: Rethinking dating violence and youth conflict. Violence Against Women , 13 , — Andridge, R. A review of hot deck imputation for survey non-response. International Statistical Review , 78 , 40— Banister, E. Bergdall, A. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: Communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults. Journal of Sex Research , 49 , — Bradley, R. Supporting healthy relationships in low-income, violent couples: Reducing conflict and strengthening relationship skills and satisfaction.
Braithwaite, S. Computer-based prevention of intimate partner violence in marriage. Behaviour Research and Therapy , 54 , 12— Bureau of Justice Statistics. Family violence statistics. Burton, K. The role of peer attachment and normative beliefs about aggression on traditional bullying and cyberbullying. Psychology in the Schools , 50 , — Carlson, R.
Collaborative Case Conceptualization
Continuum of conflict and control: A conceptualization of intimate partner violence typologies. The Family Journal , 18 , — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Understanding teen dating violence. Cohen, S. A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior , 24 , — Perceived stress in a probability sample of the United States.
Oskamp Eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Coyne, S. Family Relations , 60 , — Daire, A. An intimate partner violence IPV protocol readiness model. The Family Journal , 22 , — Dehle, C. Social support in marriage. American Journal of Family Therapy , 29 , — Dempsey, A. Has cyber technology produced a new group of peer aggressors? Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking , 14 , — Draucker, C.
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The role of electronic communication technology in adolescent dating violence. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing , 23 , — Ambiguity and violence in adolescent dating relationships. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing , 25 , — Fass, D. Assessing prevalence and awareness of violent behaviors in the intimate partner relationships of college students using internet sampling. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy , 22 4 , 66— Foshee, V. Primary prevention of adolescent dating abuse perpetration: When to begin, whom to target, and how to do it.
Lutzker Eds. Friend, D. Typologies of intimate partner violence: Evaluation of a screening instrument for differentiation. Journal of Family Violence , 26 , — Gottman, J. The relationship between heart rate reactivity, emotionally aggressive behavior, and general violence in batterers. Journal of Family Psychology , 9 , — Helms, J. The Counseling Psychologist , 34 , — Holtzworth-Munroe, A. Typologies of male batterers: Three subtypes and the differences among them.
Psychological Bulletin , , — Johnson, M. Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women. Journal of Marriage and Family , 57 , — Research on domestic violence in the s: Making distinctions. Journal of Marriage and Family , 62 , — Jory, B. The intimate justice scale: An instrument to screen for psychological abuse and physical violence in clinical practice. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy , 30 , 29— Lance, C. The sources of four commonly reported cutoff criteria: What did they really say? Organizational Research Methods , 9 , — Mason, B.
The effects of academic and interpersonal stress on dating violence among college students: A test of classical strain theory. Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 27 , — Myers, T. Goodbye, listwise deletion: Presenting hot deck imputation as an easy and effective tool for handling missing data. Communication Methods and Measures , 5 , — Roberti, J. Further psychometric support for the item version of the perceived stress scale. Journal of College Counseling , 9 , — Schacht, R.
Domestic violence assessment procedures among couple therapists. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy , 35 , 47— Schnurr, M. Psychology of Violence , 3 , 70— Shook, N. Journal of Family Violence , 15 , 1— Shorey, R. Gender differences in depression and anxiety among victims of intimate partner violence: The moderating effect of shame proneness. Journal of Interpersonal Violence , 26 , — Simpson, L. Low-level relationship aggression and couple therapy outcomes. Journal of Family Psychology , 22 , — Spencer, G. Stephenson, P. Peer involvement in adolescent dating violence. The Journal of School Nursing , 29, — Straus, M.
Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8, families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. The revised conflict tactics scales CTS2 : Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues , 17 , — Thompson, M. Prospective predictors of technology-based sexual coercion by college males. Psychology of Violence , 3 , — Weisskirch, R. Attachment style and conflict resolution skills predicting technology use in relationship dissolution.
Computers in Human Behavior , 29 , — Werner, N. Involvement in internet aggression during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence , 39 , — Yancey, A. Effective recruitment and retention of minority research participants. Annual Review of Public Health , 27 , 1— Ryan G. Jessica Fripp is a doctoral candidate at the University of South Carolina.
Christopher Cook is a doctoral candidate at the University of South Carolina. Correspondence may be addressed to Ryan G. Skip to content. Carlson, Jessica Fripp, Christopher Cook, Viki Kelchner Intimate partner violence is a problem among young adults and may be exacerbated through the use of technology. Keywords : intimate partner violence, stress, young adults, technology, couples Intimate partner violence IPV occurs among young adults ages 18 — 24 at a comparable rate with the general population. Technology and Conflict Resolution Cyber aggression has been more thoroughly researched in child and adolescent populations than in young adult populations.
Primary Analysis To begin testing the research questions, we conducted Pearson correlations to examine the relationships between demographics and other constructs of interest i. Gender 1. Perceived stress PSS 1.
Prager, Karen Jean [WorldCat Identities]
Malignancies and maladaptations can manifest in various ways. Here are examples, using more modern and common language, to help understand and interpret the meaning and possible attitudes, tendencies, behaviours, etc. In each case the examples can manifest as more extreme mental difficulties, in which case the terms would be more extreme too.
These examples are open to additional interpretation and are intended to be a guide, not scientific certainties. Neither do these examples suggest that anyone experiencing any of these behavioural tendencies is suffering from mental problems. Erikson never established any absolute measurement of emotional difficulty or tendency as to be defined as a malignancy or maladaptation. In truth each of us is subject to emotional feelings and and extremes of various sorts, and it is always a matter of opinion as to what actually constitutes a problem. All people possess a degree of maladaptation or malignancy from each crisis experience.
Not to do so would not be human, since none of us is perfect. It's always a question of degree. It's also a matter of understanding our weaknesses, maybe understanding where they come from too, and thereby better understanding how we might become stronger, more productive and happier. This section explains how some of the model's terminology altered as Erikson developed his theory, and is not crucial to understanding the model at a simple level.
Erikson was continually refining and re-evaluating his psychosocial theory, and he encouraged his readers and followers to do likewise. This developmental approach enabled the useful extension of the model to its current format. Some of what is summarised here did not initially appear clearly in Childhood and Society in , which marked the establishment of the basic theory, not its completion. Several aspects of Erikson's theory were clarified in subsequent books decades later, including work focusing on old age by Joan Erikson, Erik's wife and collaborator, notably in the revised edition of The Life Cycle Completed: A Review.
The Eriksons' refinements also involved alterations - some would say complications - to the terminology, which although presumably aiming for scientific precision do not necessarily aid understanding, especially at a basic working level. For clarity therefore this page sticks mostly with Erikson's original and other commonly used terminology. Basic Trust v Basic Mistrust is however shortened here to Trust v Mistrust, and Ego Integrity is shortened to Integrity, because these seem to be more consistent Erikson preferences. The terms used on this page are perfectly adequate, and perhaps easier too, for grasping what the theory means and making use of it.
Here are the main examples of alternative terminology that Erikson used in later works to describe the crisis stages and other aspects, which will help you recognise and understand their meaning if you see them elsewhere. Erikson's psychosocial theory very powerful for self-awareness and improvement, and for teaching and helping others.
While Erikson's model emphasises the sequential significance of the eight character-forming crisis stages, the concept also asserts that humans continue to change and develop throughout their lives, and that personality is not exclusively formed during early childhood years. This is a helpful and optimistic idea, and many believe it is realistic too. It is certainly a view that greatly assists encouraging oneself and others to see the future as an opportunity for positive change and development, instead of looking back with blame and regret.
The better that people come through each crisis, the better they will tend to deal with what lies ahead, but this is not to say that all is lost and never to be recovered if a person has had a negative experience during any particular crisis stage. Lessons can be revisited successfully when they recur, if we recognise and welcome them. Everyone can change and grow, no matter what has gone before. And as ever, understanding why we are like we are - gaining meaningful self-awareness - is always a useful and important step forward. Erikson's theory, along with many other concepts featured on this website, helps to enable this meaningful understanding and personal growth.
Erikson's psychosocial theory should be taught to everyone - especially to school children, teachers and parents - it's certainly accessible enough, and would greatly assist all people of all ages to understand the connections between life experiences and human behaviour - and particularly how grown-ups can help rather than hinder children's development into rounded emotionally mature people.
Erikson was keen to improve the way children and young people are taught and nurtured, and it would be appropriate for his ideas to be more widely known and used in day-to-day life, beyond the clinical and counselling professions. Hopefully this page explains Erikson's psychosocial theory in reasonable simple terms. I'm always open to suggestions of improvements, especially for a challenging and potent area like this one. Or read any of Erikson's books - they are very accessible and rich in ideas, and they do have a strong resonance with much of what we face in modern life.
His natural father departed before the birth, and his mother subsequently married Dr Theodor Homberger, Erik's paediatrician. Erik changed his surname later in life, seemingly on becoming an American citizen. A degree of uncertainty about personal identity and direction apparently characterised Erik's childhood and early adult years - not surprisingly given his circumstances - which reflected and perhaps helped inspire his life work.
After wandering and working around Europe as an artist, Erikson came to psychoanalysis almost by accident. Around aged 25 he took a teaching job at an experimental school for American children in Vienna run by psychoanalyst Dorothy Burlingham daughter of New York jeweller Charles Tiffany incidentally - she initially came to Vienna for psychoanalysis.
This appointment was pivotal: it introduced Erikson to Montessori education methods, to psychoanalysis, to Anna Freud lifelong friend and collaborator of Dorothy Burlingham , and also to the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, Sigmund Freud's centre of psychoanalytical excellence. The work and teachings of Sigmund Freud and daughter Anna were to prove hugely significant in the development of Erikson's own ideas and direction, and all from an inconspicuous teaching appointment. Erikson's early specialisation was child analysis, in which his interest and research grew following his emigration to the USA in , where he also engaged in clinical work and teaching at Harvard, Yale, and later Berkeley California.
Erik Erikson's early work focused chiefly on testing and extending Freudian theory in relation to the effect of social and cultural factors upon human psychology, with a strong emphasis on how society affects childhood and development. This research entailed detailed anthropological studies of children in societies, notably conducted in with the Oglala Lakota Sioux and Yurok Native American people. These experiences especially helped Erikson to realise that Freudian ideas lacked vital social dimensions, and provided a key for his 'biopsychosocial' perspective.
He subsequently moved to the University of California, continuing his focus on child welfare, and also practised at the San Francisco Veterans Hospital treating trauma and mental illness. When McCarthy demanded California academics sign the 'loyalty oath' in , Erikson moved to Massachusetts, where he taught and worked for ten years until moving to Harvard. He retired from clinical practice, but not from research and writing, in , back to Massachusetts, and died in Erik's Canadian wife Joan M Erikson, whom he met and married in Vienna, was also keenly interested and expert in the life stages theory and its application to childhood development and psychoanalysis.
She collaborated in Erikson's clinical and teaching work and in the development and writing of his ideas too. She died in , three years after her husband. They had two sons and a daughter. Erikson's first and arguably most important book, Childhood and Society, was published in , in which he first explained his eight stage theory of human development, and incidentally also established the concept of the 'identity crisis' in adolescence. Later books reflected his interest in humanistic and society perspectives and his own passage through later life stages, and included Young Man Luther , Identity and the Life Cycle , Insight and Responsibility , Identity: Youth and Crisis , Gandhi's Truth - which won the Pulizter Prize, and Dimensions of a New Identity Erickson's book The Life Cycle Completed: A Review was revised in by Joan Erikson in which she extended the stages of old age within the life cycle model.
The book Vital Involvement in Old Age , which revisited people and life stages first studied forty years earlier, was jointly written with Joan Erikson and Helen Kivnik. Business and Lifestyle. Other Trivia. Remember username. Log in using your account on. Table of contents 1. Eight Stages 2. Summary Diagram 3. Overview 3. Freud's Influence 3. Freud's Psychosexual Stages 4. Psychosocial Crisis Stages 5. Meanings and Interpretations 6. Positive Outcomes 7. Maslow 8. Negative Outcomes 9. Terminology Conclusion Erik Erikson Related materials Eight Stages Like other seminal concepts, Erikson's model is simple and elegant, yet very sophisticated.
The Freudian stages of psychosexual development , which influenced Erikson's approach to the psychosocial model. Erik Erikson biography briefly N. Summary Diagram Here's a broad introduction to the main features of Erikson's model. Freudian psychosexual stages - overview Erikson's psychosocial crisis stages age guide 1. Oral Stage - Feeding, crying, teething, biting, thumb-sucking, weaning - the mouth and the breast are the centre of all experience.
The infant's actual experiences and attachments to mum or maternal equivalent through this stage have a fundamental effect on the unconscious mind and thereby on deeply rooted feelings, which along with the next two stages affect all sorts of behaviours and sexually powered drives and aims - Freud's 'libido' - and preferences in later life. Anal Stage - It's a lot to do with pooh - 'holding on' or 'letting go' - the pleasure and control. Is it dirty? Is it okay? Bodily expulsions are the centre of the world, and the pivot around which early character is formed.
Am I pleasing my mum and dad? Are they making me feel good or bad about my bottom? Am I okay or naughty?
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Again the young child's actual experiences through this stage have a deep effect on the unconscious and behaviours and preferences in later life. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt yrs, toddler, toilet training 3. Phallic Stage - Phallic is not restricted to boys. This stage is focused on resolving reproductive issues. This is a sort of dry run before the real game starts in adolescence. Where do babies come from? Can I have a baby? Why has dad got a willy and I've not? Why have I got a willy and mum hasn't?
Why do they tell me off for touching my bits and pieces down there? Boys I'm going to marry mum and maybe kill dad. Girls I'm in love with my dad. If you want to know more about all this I recommend you read about Freud, not Erikson, and I repeat that understanding Freud's psychosexual theory is not required for understanding and using Erikson's concepts. Initiative v Guilt yrs, pre-school, nursery 4.loveplus-battery.com/wp-content/muj-chloroquine-best-price.php
Erikson's Theory of Human Development
Latency Stage - Sexual dormancy or repression. The focus is on learning, skills, schoolwork. This is actually not a psychosexual stage because basically normally nothing formative happens sexually. Experiences, fears and conditioning from the previous stages have already shaped many of the child's feelings and attitudes and these will re-surface in the next stage.
Industry v Inferiority yrs, early school 5. Genital stage - Puberty in other words. Glandular, hormonal, and physical changes in the adolescent child's body cause a resurgence of sexual thoughts, feelings and behaviours. Boys start treating their mothers like woman-servants and challenge their fathers Freud's 'Oedipus'. All become highly agitated if away from a mirror for more than half an hour Freud's Narcissus or Narcissism.
Dating and fondling quickly push schoolwork and sports and anything else encouraged by parents and figures of authority into second place. Basically everyone is in turmoil and it's mostly to do with growing up, which entails more sexual undercurrents than parents would ever believe, even though these same parents went through exactly the same struggles themselves just a few years before.
It's a wonder anyone ever makes it to adulthood, but of course they do, and mostly it's all perfectly normal. This is the final Freudian psychosexual stage. Erikson's model, which from the start offers a different and more socially oriented perspective, continues through to old age, and re-interprets Freudian sexual theory into the adult life stages equating to Erikson's crisis stages. This incorporation of Freudian sexual stages into the adult crisis stages is not especially significant.
Intimacy v Isolation , courting, early parenthood No direct equivalent Freudian stage, although Erikson later interpreted this as being a psychosexual stage of 'Procreativity'. Generativity v Stagnation , middle age, parenting Again no direct equivalent Freudian stage. Erikson later called this the psychosexual stage of 'Generalization of Sensual Modes'. Psychosocial Crisis Stage Life Stage age range, other descriptions 1. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt Early Childhood yrs, toddler, toilet training 3.
Initiative v Guilt Play Age yrs, pre-school, nursery 4. Industry v Inferiority School Age yrs, early school 5. Intimacy v Isolation Young Adult , courting, early parenthood 7. Generativity v Stagnation Adulthood , middle age, parenting 8. Trust is reciprocal - maybe karma even.. The infant will develop a healthy balance between trust and mistrust if fed and cared for and not over-indulged or over-protected.
Abuse or neglect or cruelty will destroy trust and foster mistrust. Mistrust increases a person's resistance to risk-exposure and exploration. On the other hand, if the infant is insulated from all and any feelings of surprise and normality, or unfailingly indulged, this will create a false sense of trust amounting to sensory distortion, in other words a failure to appreciate reality.
Infants who grow up to trust are more able to hope and have faith that 'things will generally be okay'. This crisis stage incorporates Freud's psychosexual Oral stage, in which the infant's crucial relationships and experiences are defined by oral matters, notably feeding and relationship with mum. Of course very Freudian Autonomy means self-reliance. This is independence of thought, and a basic confidence to think and act for oneself.
Shame and Doubt mean what they say, and obviously inhibit self-expression and developing one's own ideas, opinions and sense of self. Toilet and potty training is a significant part of this crisis, as in Freud's psychosexual Anal stage, where parental reactions, encouragement and patience play an important role in shaping the young child's experience and successful progression through this period. The significance of parental reaction is not limited to bottoms and pooh - it concerns all aspects of toddler exploration and discovery while small children struggle to find their feet - almost literally - as little people in their own right.
The 'terrible twos' and 'toddler tantrums' are a couple of obvious analogies which represent these internal struggles and parental battles. The parental balancing act is a challenging one, especially since parents themselves are having to deal with their own particular psychosocial crisis, and of course deal with the influence of their own emotional triggers which were conditioned when they themselves passed through earlier formative crisis stages.
What are the odds that whenever a parent berates a child, "That's dirty.. Guilt means what it says, and in this context is the feeling that it is wrong or inappropriate to instigate something of one's own design. Guilt results from being admonished or believing that something is wrong or likely to attract disapproval.
Initiative flourishes when adventure and game-playing is encouraged, irrespective of how daft and silly it seems to the grown-up in charge. Suppressing adventure and experimentation, or preventing young children doing things for themselves because of time, mess or a bit of risk will inhibit the development of confidence to initiate, replacing it instead with an unhelpful fear of being wrong or unapproved. The fear of being admonished or accused of being stupid becomes a part of the personality. Parents, carers and older siblings have a challenge to get the balance right between giving young children enough space and encouragement so as to foster a sense of purpose and confidence, but to protect against danger, and also to enable a sensible exposure to trail and error, and to the consequences of mistakes, without which an irresponsible or reckless tendency can develop.
This crisis stage correlates with Freud's psychosexual Phallic stage, characterised by a perfectly natural interest in genitals, where babies come from, and as Freud asserted, an attachment to the opposite sex parent, and the murky mysteries of the Oedipus Complex, Penis Envy and Castration Anxiety, about which further explanation and understanding is not critical to appreciating Erikson's theory.
What's more essential is to recognise that children of this age are not wicked or bad or naughty, they are exploring and experimenting very naturally in pursuit of learning, development and confidence. Industry here refers to purposeful or meaningful activity. It's the development of competence and skills, and a confidence to use a 'method', and is a crucial aspect of school years experience. Erikson described this stage as a sort of 'entrance to life'. This correlates with Freud's psychosexual Latency stage, when sexual motives and concerns are largely repressed while the young person concentrates on work and skills development.
A child who experiences the satisfaction of achievement - of anything positive - will move towards successful negotiation of this crisis stage. A child who experiences failure at school tasks and work, or worse still who is denied the opportunity to discover and develop their own capabilities and strengths and unique potential, quite naturally is prone to feeling inferior and useless.
Engaging with others and using tools or technology are also important aspects of this stage. It is like a rehearsal for being productive and being valued at work in later life. Inferiority is feeling useless; unable to contribute, unable to cooperate or work in a team to create something, with the low self-esteem that accompanies such feelings. Erikson knew this over fifty years ago. How is it that the people in charge of children's education still fail to realise this?
Develop the child from within. Help them to find and excel at what they are naturally good at, and then they will achieve the sense of purpose and industry on which everything else can then be built. Affirmation or otherwise of how you see yourself. Identity means essentially how a person sees themselves in relation to their world.
It's a sense of self or individuality in the context of life and what lies ahead. Role Confusion is the negative perspective - an absence of identity - meaning that the person cannot see clearly or at all who they are and how they can relate positively with their environment. This stage coincides with puberty or adolescence, and the reawakening of the sexual urge whose dormancy typically characterises the previous stage.
Young people struggle to belong and to be accepted and affirmed, and yet also to become individuals. In itself this is a big dilemma, aside from all the other distractions and confusions experienced at this life stage. Erikson later replaced the term 'Role Confusion' with 'Identity Diffusion'. In essence they mean the same. Intimacy means the process of achieving relationships with family and marital or mating partner s. Erikson explained this stage also in terms of sexual mutuality - the giving and receiving of physical and emotional connection, support, love, comfort, trust, and all the other elements that we would typically associate with healthy adult relationships conducive to mating and child-rearing.
There is a strong reciprocal feature in the intimacy experienced during this stage - giving and receiving - especially between sexual or marital partners. Isolation conversely means being and feeling excluded from the usual life experiences of dating and mating and mutually loving relationships. This logically is characterised by feelings of loneliness, alienation, social withdrawal or non-participation. Erikson also later correlated this stage with the Freudian Genitality sexual stage, which illustrates the difficulty in equating Freudian psychosexual theory precisely to Erikson's model.
There is a correlation but it is not an exact fit. Erikson acknowledged that this stage also extends to other productive activities - work and creativity for example - but given his focus on childhood development, and probably the influence of Freudian theory, Erikson's analysis of this stage was strongly oriented towards parenting. Generativity potentially extends beyond one's own children, and also to all future generations, which gives the model ultimately a very modern globally responsible perspective.
Positive outcomes from this crisis stage depend on contributing positively and unconditionally. We might also see this as an end of self-interest. Having children is not a prerequisite for Generativity, just as being a parent is no guarantee that Generativity will be achieved. Caring for children is the common Generativity scenario, but success at this stage actually depends on giving and caring - putting something back into life, to the best of one's capabilities.
Stagnation is an extension of Isolation which turns inward in the form of self-interest and self-absorption. It's the disposition that represents feelings of selfishness, self-indulgence, greed, lack of interest in young people and future generations, and the wider world. Erikson later used the term 'Self-Absorption' instead of 'Stagnation' and then seems to have settled in later work with the original 'Stagnation'. This is a review and closing stage. The previous stage is actually a culmination of one's achievement and contribution to descendents, and potentially future generations everywhere.
He also continued to use the shorter form 'Integrity v Despair'. Integrity means feeling at peace with oneself and the world. No regrets or recriminations. The linking between the stages is perhaps clearer here than anywhere: people are more likely to look back on their lives positively and happily if they have left the world a better place than they found it - in whatever way, to whatever extent.
There lies Integrity and acceptance. This stage is a powerful lens through which to view one's life - even before old age is reached. Erikson had a profound interest in humanity and society's well-being in general. This crisis stage highlights the issue very meaningfully.