Guide The Egyptian Economy: Performance Policies and Issues (Routledge Studies in Middle Eastern Economies)

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Furthermore, female. These findings present a different picture of unemployment that is in place in Egypt. As for investment, growth in Egypt has traditionally been achieved through capital formation, with no observable effect occurring through growth in total factor productivity. While Egypts GDP grew by an average rate of 5. Over the entire period , capital accumulation contributed about two-thirds of the growth in real GDP, growth in human capital-adjusted labor about one-third.

Until mids, it had a negative effect, which recovered in the second half of the decade by post-Six Day War reconstruction and the effect of the opening period labeled infitah. TFP fell again in the s and s, only to slightly recover before the end of the millennia. Analyses showed that low output in Egypt was not only due to low inputs, but also due to low efficiency caused by lack of education, etc.

Overall, what affected the economic growth the most during this period was Egypts efforts at containing the account deficit. This led to the restriction of imports, which cost in under-used capital stock and higher unemployment than would otherwise be decreased. In Ikrams words: The balance of payments, therefore, must be seen as the ultimate constraint on Egypts growth during this period.

The ratio of merchandise imports to merchandise exports were on the average between 2. Thus, Egypt had to live with a constantly negative account balance for much of its modern life, until the debt rearrangement of the second half of the s. Throughout this period, imports grew much faster.

Since imports from early in the period became substantially higher than exports and continued to grow at a significantly faster rate. The large and increasing divergence between imports and exports became most noticeable after , when the greater availability of foreign aid enabled a larger expansion in the volume of imports.

During the same period, Egypt clearly could not keep up with the increase in world trade. The country could not grow its production and exports in parallel with the global averages, and thus lost considerable ground in the international market. The reduction internationally was paralleled by the decreasing significance of exports in the GDP, dropping from The ratio reflected the performance of oil sales; for example, there was an upward blip to In sum, Egypt missed the chance to become an exporting country and suffered below average growth and improvement in total and per capita GDP throughout the period.

Read Free For 30 Days. Description: Short paragraphs from Khalid Ikram's influential work on Egyptian economy.

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